Different types of Truss Structures

by Khalad Bin


Introduction


Trusses are widely used in bridges, buildings, and other infrastructures. The function of a truss is to provide turgidity to the skeleton. A truss is an assembly of metallic elements (bars, rods, pipes, etc).


The elements of a truss are interdependent and exert force on one another, to survive the external load and burden. A truss is used instead of RCC and concrete beams. Trusses are of different types with regard to their designs and shapes.


Elements of Truss


Almost all the trusses are made up of three fundamental components. The chord, the bottom, and the members.


1. Upper stringer in a truss is called the chord.

2. The lower stringer of the truss is called the bottom.

3. Members, also called struts are the bars, rods, and strips that connect the chord and bottom of the truss.


Types of Trusses


Basically, there are two types of truss on the basis of their design and working mechanism.

  1. Pitched Truss

  2. Parallel Chord Truss


Pitched Truss:


In a pitched truss, the chord (upper stringer) and bottom (the lower stringer) are not parallel. The chord of the truss is extended outward like an arch or a cone. The extended chord of the truss provides extra strength to the truss. The pitched trusses are used in constructing roofs of the buildings, especially in the area of snowfall. The cone-shaped roofs do not allow the snowfall to dump on the roof while making the snowfall slip down from the edges of the roof.




Parallel Truss:


A parallel truss is made up of the parallel chord and bottom. The chord and bottom run straight in a parallel path. Both the stringers (chord and bottom) are interconnected by means of struts (the connecting rods). If compared, the pitched trusses are stronger than the parallel truss. A parallel truss is generally used instead of girders and beams.


Mixing both of the types the truss are further classified into the following types:

  1. Warren Truss