How to design a Surface Water Treatment Plant for your University Coursework

Updated: Dec 5, 2020



What is a Water Treatment Plant?


Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it appropriate for a specific end-use. The end use may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. This treatment is crucial to human health and allows humans to benefit from both drinking and irrigation use.



When designing water treatment facilities, the main factors to be considered are the type of water source, finished water quality, the skill of facility operators and the available size of funds.

Sources: Wikipedia

How many stages of treatment units are present in a surface water treatment plant? (e.g lake)


In a surface water treatment plant units used are:

  1. COAGULATION

  2. FLOCCULATION

  3. SEDIMENTATION

  4. FILTRATION

  5. DISINFECTION

surface water treatment plant process units involved
Surface water treatment plant process units involved

A multiple barrier approach should be adopted for reliability reasons of safety in the water supply system. In the case of malefaction or maintenance of one unit, the system will be able to continue to operate with the rest of the units being in operation. Similarly, having multiple process units can offer more reliable supplies in terms of removal of pathogenic contamination.