Life cycle stages in Construction works as per BS EN 15978: 2011

Updated: Aug 31


Life cycle stages (BS15978, 2011)
Life cycle stages (BS15978, 2011)

System boundaries as set by the BS 15978 determine the processes taken into consideration of the object of environmental assessment of construction projects as seen in Figure above. Cycle phases are classified in stages of the material production and transportation to site, construction processes, in use and end of life, as described in detail below. Further for simplicity, definitions for the purpose of these study carbon emissions associated with modules A1 to A5 are defined as capital carbon.

• A1-A3 (Cradle to Gate)

Product stage also known as ‘cradle to gate’ and modules A1–A3, are carbon emissions (kgCO2e) released during raw material extraction, processing, manufacture (including prefabrication of components or elements) and transportation of materials between these processes until the product leaves the factory gates to be taken to site.

• A4-A5 (Construction process stage)

Modules A4 to A5 are associated with the embodied carbon released during transport of materials/products to site (A4), the energy usage due to activities on site (machinery use etc.) and the carbon emissions associated with the production, transportation and end of life processing of materials wasted on-site (A5) (O P & J J, 2020) (15804:2012, 2020).

• B1-B7 (Use Stage)

The usage stage includes the carbon emissions released due to use, maintenance, repair, replacement, refurbishment and operational energy. Module B4 (replacement) is often the focus of the use stage when embodied carbon is being considered (O P & J J, 2020) (15804:2012, 2020).

• C1 – C4 (End of Life)

End of life stage, modules C1–C4 are emissions released during decommissioning, stripping out, demolition, deconstruction, transportation of materials away from the site, waste processing and disposal of materials (O P & J J, 2020).


The best practice for analysing the core values of a modern net-zero infrastructure project is by adopting a life cycle approach to the whole life span of stages A1-C4 from the extraction of raw materials and manufacturing component products of build assets to operation and disposal, and to the potential beyond End of life of assets.


A reliable and comparable environmental methodology as per BS EN 15978 should be adopted based on the study scope with the minimum required calculation including Module A1-A5 as outlined in (O P & J J, 2020). As stated in ‘How to calculate embodied carbon’ (O P & J J, 2020), 50% of emissions of a project are associated with the material selection of embodied carbon (A1-A3) where the most analysis should be done to identify hotspots early in the project.



LCA as defined by ISO 14040

Stages of an LCA Assessment (ISO14040, 2006)
Stages of an LCA Assessment (ISO14040, 2006)

As defined by ISO 14040 an LCA analysis should consist of the phases illustrated in Figure above. A partial LCA framework is established including elements such as the study goal, the system boundary, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation of results.

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